PROGRES.ID – From the era of independence struggle to the reform era, Indonesia has experienced numerous rebellions, both small and large in scale. Many of these occurred during the Physical Revolution period, from 1945 to 1949. These rebellions had various backgrounds, whether regional or political in nature. Here are some rebellion events that have occurred in Indonesia:
1.PKI Madiun 1948
This rebellion was led by Musso, a member of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI). It began due to the weakening influence of the PKI since the Japanese occupation, coupled with dissatisfaction regarding the Renville Agreement. The PKI aimed to regain power under the leadership of Amir Sjafruddin.
2.Kartosuwiryo Rebellion in West Java 1948
Kartosuwiryo aimed to implement Islamic law and establish an Islamic State of Indonesia. The rebellion was triggered by Kartosuwiryo’s rejection of the Renville Agreement, which he perceived as encroaching on the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.
The DI/TII rebellion occurred in several regions of Indonesia from 1949 to 1962. The reasons for these rebellions varied by region:
- West Java: Led by Kartosuwiryo, this rebellion aimed to establish an Islamic State in Indonesia.
- Aceh: Led by Daud Beureuh, the rebellion was fueled by the disappointment of Aceh’s leaders over the incorporation of Aceh into North Sumatra Province.
- Central Java: Led by Amir Fatah and Kyai Sumolangu, this rebellion emerged due to disagreements with the Renville Agreement.
- South Kalimantan: Led by Ibnu Hadjar, this rebellion stemmed from the dissatisfaction of troops who did not receive positions as they desired.
- South Sulawesi: Led by Kahar Muzakar, this rebellion resulted from Kahar Muzakar’s frustration with many KGSS (South Sulawesi People’s Security Organization) members not being accepted into the Republic of Indonesia Serikat (RIS) Armed Forces.
The APRA rebellion occurred in Bandung on January 23, 1950. It was triggered by internal friction within the Republic of Indonesia Serikat (RIS) Armed Forces (APRIS), led by former KNIL Captain Raymond Westerling.
5.Andi Azis Battle
The Andi Azis Battle took place in Makassar in 1950. Andi Azis aimed to defend the State of East Indonesia and resist APRIS interference in South Sulawesi.
6.Republic of South Maluku (RMS) Rebellion
The RMS rebellion occurred in Ambon in 1950 and was led by Cristian Robert Steren Soumokil. Their goal was to separate from the Republic of Indonesia due to dissatisfaction with the Netherlands’ recognition of Indonesia’s independence.