What is Uterine Prolapse in Women: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Ilustration (Andrea Piacquadio/Pexels)

PROGRES.ID – Uterine prolapse is a medical condition that occurs when the uterus, the primary reproductive organ in a woman’s body, descends from its normal position and presses down into the vagina or even protrudes from the vagina.

In other words, prolapse is a condition where pelvic organs in women descend through the vaginal canal due to weakness in the pelvic floor support structures. This was explained by Dr. dr. Nuring Pangastuti, Sp.OG(K)-Urogin, from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, during a casual conversation on Raisa Radio on Monday, May 9, 2022, as quoted by Progres.id from ugm.ac.id.
“There are some keywords here; the condition of the pelvic organs must descend through the vagina, not through other routes. The pathway taken is the vagina, so this is a specific condition in women,” said Nuring.

This is a common problem that primarily affects women after menopause or women who have given birth vaginally. Uterine prolapse can significantly disrupt a woman’s daily life and requires appropriate medical treatment. In this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment of uterine prolapse in women.

Causes of Uterine Prolapse

Uterine prolapse occurs when the muscles, ligaments, and support tissues in the pelvis that support the uterus weaken or stretch. Some factors that can cause uterine prolapse include:

  • Pregnancy and Childbirth: One of the most common causes is repeated vaginal childbirth or difficult childbirth. The childbirth process can damage the pelvic muscles and ligaments that support the uterus.
  • Menopause: A decrease in estrogen hormone levels during menopause can lead to decreased elasticity of pelvic tissues and weakened support muscles.
  • Age: The older a woman gets, the higher the risk of experiencing uterine prolapse due to natural changes in the body.
  • Genetics: The tendency to experience uterine prolapse can be inherited in families.
  • Obesity: Excess weight can increase pressure on the uterus and pelvic muscles, increasing the risk of uterine prolapse.
  • Jobs Requiring Heavy Lifting: Jobs that involve heavy lifting or excessive pressure on the pelvis can increase the risk of uterine prolapse.

Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

Symptoms of uterine prolapse can vary from mild to severe, depending on how far the uterus has descended. Some common symptoms include:

  • Feeling of Pressure or Discomfort in the Pelvis: Many women with uterine prolapse describe a heavy feeling in the pelvic or vaginal area.
  • Protrusion of Reproductive Organs: In severe cases, the uterus may be visible or felt protruding from the vagina. This is called complete uterine prolapse.
  • Urinary Problems: Uterine prolapse can cause urinary issues, such as frequent urination, difficulty holding urine, or urinary incontinence.
  • Sexual Problems: Some women with uterine prolapse experience discomfort during sexual intercourse or a decrease in sexual satisfaction.
  • Unusual Vaginal Discharge: Unusual or bloody vaginal discharge may occur.
  • Lower Back or Pelvic Pain: Pain or discomfort in the lower back or pelvic area can be a symptom of uterine prolapse.
  • Bowel Movement Problems: Uterine prolapse can also affect bowel movements and cause constipation or difficulty with bowel movements.

Diagnosis and Treatment

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