PROGRES.ID – Google is one of the world’s largest and most influential technology companies, but its history began as a research project by university students. In this article, we will trace Google’s journey from its beginnings to when it transformed into Alphabet, a holding company overseeing several subsidiaries.
The Genesis of Google
Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two doctoral students at Stanford University, in 1998. Initially, they started a research project they called “Backrub,” which focused on indexing and ranking web pages based on relevance.
In 1997, Larry and Sergey decided to rename the project “Google,” derived from the mathematical term “googol,” which is the number 1 followed by one hundred zeros. This name reflected their ambition to create a powerful search engine capable of handling the vast amount of information on the internet.
The Launch of Google Search Engine
In 1998, Google was launched as a search engine that prioritized providing users with the most relevant and high-quality search results. One of Google’s key innovations was the PageRank algorithm, which measured the authority of web pages based on the quantity and quality of links leading to that page. This helped Google generate more accurate and relevant search results.
Initially, Google operated from the garage of their friend Susan Wojcicki, who later joined Google and became a key executive. Although it began as just a search engine, Google soon expanded its services and features. They launched “Google News” in 2002, which became a popular online news platform.
Journey to Success
In 2004, Google went public with an initial public offering (IPO) at a share price of $85 per share. This was a significant moment in the company’s history as it made Google a publicly traded company and raised substantial capital for its growth.
Since then, Google has continued to grow rapidly. They acquired various companies and introduced new products and services, including Google Maps, Google Earth, Gmail, and Google Docs. Although initially known as a search engine, Google evolved into a diversified technology company with a broad product portfolio.
In 2015, Google announced a major change in their corporate structure. Larry Page and Sergey Brin announced the creation of a new holding company called “Alphabet Inc.” Alphabet would serve as the parent company for various subsidiaries previously under the Google umbrella.
Alphabet was established to provide more flexibility and separation between the different business units under Google’s purview. One of the main reasons for this change was to enable Google’s core businesses, such as search and advertising, to operate independently from other experimental projects.
As part of this change, Sundar Pichai, who previously led the Android division, was appointed as the new CEO of Google, while Larry Page became the CEO of Alphabet, and Sergey Brin became Alphabet’s President. Although Page and Brin remained involved in Alphabet’s management, they took on more limited roles in Google’s day-to-day operations.
Business Diversification Under Alphabet
Under the Alphabet umbrella, various Google subsidiaries have experienced significant growth and diversification. Google remains at the core of Alphabet and generates most of the company’s revenue, primarily from online advertising.
In addition to Google, Alphabet owns other subsidiaries focused on various fields, including Waymo (autonomous vehicles), DeepMind (artificial intelligence), Verily (healthcare), and many more. Through this diversification, Alphabet aims to maintain innovation and exploration in various technology domains.
Google’s history is an extraordinary success story that began as a university research project and evolved into one of the world’s largest technology companies. With an innovative approach, a focus on quality, and the ability to adapt to market changes, Google has proven that innovation and a commitment to users are keys to success in the tech world. With the formation of Alphabet, the company continues to strive to maintain its position as a leader in various aspects of modern technology.